APA In-Text Citations
A paper composed in APA format should include in-text parenthetical citations for
quotations, paraphrases, summaries and other specific information used from another
author or work. APA style in-text citations require providing the original author's
name and the year of publication for all in-text citations.
The purpose of the in-text citations is to refer a reader to the reference list for
more information about the sources being used. View the APA Reference Page on this site for more information about APA reference page citations.
Below are directions and examples for common APA style in-text citations.
APA In-text Citation Examples:
- Author’s Name in Parentheses:
When both the author’s name and the year of publication are provided in parentheses,
separate them with a comma. To specify the location of a quotation, paraphrase, summary
or other information, add another comma, then provide p. (for page numbers) or pp.
(for paragraph numbers), and the appropriate page or paragraph number on which the
material appears in the source.
Example: One recent study examines the emotional intensity of “the fan’s link to the
star” (Gitlin, 2001, p. 129).
- Author’s Name in Discussion (in text):
When an author’s name is included in text, as part of the sentence, give the date
of the source in parentheses after the name. Provide the page number in the source
following any quotation or paraphrase.
Example: For Gitlin (2001), emotion is the basis of “the fan’s link to the star” (p.
- Specific Reference (page, paragraph or chapter numbers):
Indicate what type of reference is being cited: p. (page), chap. (chapter), fig.
(figure), para. (paragraph – this is somewhat common in electronic sources), followed
by the appropriate number. Spell potentially confusing words. For classical works,
always indicate the part (chap. 5), not the page.
Example: Teenagers who survive suicide attempts experience distinct stages of recovery (Mauk
& Weber, 1991, Table 1).
- One Author:
In-text citations can be varied to present both the name and date in parentheses,
both in the text, or the name in the text and the date in parentheses.
Example: Dell’s 2002 study of charter schools confirmed issues identified earlier (James,
1996) and also updated Rau’s (1998) school classification.
- Two Authors:
In a parenthetical citation, separate the names with an ampersand (&); when used
within the text, use the word ‘and’ instead of the ampersand.
Example: Given evidence that married men earn more than unmarried men (Chun & Lee,
2001), Nakosteen and Zimmer (2001) investigate how earnings affect spousal selection.
- Three to Five Authors:
Include all the names, separated by commas, in the first citation. In parenthetical
citations, use an ampersand (&) rather than ‘and.’
Example: Sadeh, Raviv, and Gruber (2000) related “sleep problems and neuropsychological
functioning in children” (p. 292).
*NOTE: If referencing the same source again later in the paper, give only the first
author’s name and the term et al. (a Latin term meaning “and others”):
Example: Sadeh et al. (2000) reported their findings.
- Six or More Authors:
In all text citations, follow the first author with the term et al (a Latin term
meaning and others).
Example: (Berg et el., 1998).
- Corporate or Group Author:
Spell out the name of the organization, corporation or agency in the first citation.
Follow any lengthy or cumbersome name with an abbreviation in brackets, and use the
shorter form or acronym in later citations.
Example, first citation: Besides instilling fear, hate crimes limit where women live
and work (National Organization of Women [NOW], 2001).
Example, later citation: Pending legislation would strengthen the statuses on bias-motivated
crimes (NOW, 2001).
- No Author Given:
Give the full title or, if the title is lengthy, provide the first few words of the
Example: These photographs represent people from all walks of life (Friendship, 2001).
Full title: Friendship: Celebration of Humanity.
- Citing More Than Once:
When the same source is cited more than once in a paragraph, repeat the source as
necessary to clarify a page reference or specify one of several sources. If a second
reference is clear, don’t repeat the date.
Example: Much of the increase in personal debt can be linked to unrestrained use of
credit cards (Schor, 1998, p. 73). In fact, according to Schor, roughly a third of
consumers “describe themselves as either heavily or moderately in financial debt” (p.
- Authors with the Same Name:
When references include works by two authors who share the same last name, provide
the author’s initials for each in-text citation to differentiate between the two.
Example: Scholars have examined the development of African- American culture during
slavery and reconstruction (E. Foner, 1988), including the role of Frederick Douglass
in this process (P. Foner, 1950).
- Personal Communications, Including Interviews and Email:
Within the text, cite letters, interviews, memos, emails, telephone calls, etc. using
the name of the person, the expression personal communication and the full date. Readers
have no access to such sources, so these sources may be omitted from the reference
Example: According to J. M. Hostos, the state no longer funds services duplicated
by county agencies (personal communication, Oct. 7, 2003).
- Two or More Sources with Similar Information/Findings:
If information from several sources is summarized, include all sources in the citation.
Separate the authors and years with commas; separate the sources with semicolons.
List the sources alphabetically, then oldest to most recent for several by the same
Example: Several studies have related job satisfaction with performance (Faire, 2002;
Hall, 1996, 1999).
- Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year:
If you use works published in the same year by the same author or author team, alphabetize
the works, and add letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year to differentiate them.
Example: Gould (1987a, p. 73) makes a similar point.