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Online Writing Lab

Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago style is commonly the preferred method of format and citation used in humanities classes, most frequently history. The main difference between the Chicago styled, APA, and MLA format is the use of endnotes or footnotes for citation of sources.

Reference numbers for these footnotes or endnotes should appear within the text, directly after any sentence where a source is used. A corresponding note will then appear on the bottom of the page that provides further information about the source, or within endnotes which are generally provided at the end of each section or at the end of the entire document.

Your instructor may specify whether to use footnotes or endnotes. Additionally, the Chicago style generally requires a bibliography page, which is the last page of the paper and should give the full information for all sources, with each source listed in alphabetical order.  

The first footnote or endnote for each source should include all the needed information for the source. If the same source is cited again, the note only needs to cite the last name of the author, the full title or a shortened form of the title and page number(s) for where the information appears.

If the same source and page number(s) from a single source are used two or more times consecutively, the corresponding note should use the word “Ibid.,” an abbreviated form of the Latin term “ibidem,” which translates to ‘in the same place.’ If the same source is used more than once but with a different page number, the corresponding note should use the term ‘Ibid.’ followed by a comma and the new page number(s).

For more information on how to cite specific sources in a Chicago Style bibliography, view the Chicago Style Piktochart.  

For more in-depth information on the Chicago Manual of Style, visit the Aims Learning Commons and speak with a librarian or writing tutor, consult a credible composition manual or visit the Chicago Style website: