In order for a sentence to be grammatically complete, it must adhere to three different rules:
If a sentence meets these three criteria, it can stand on its own and is referred
to as an independent clause. (If something is independent, it obviously doesn’t need
If a written sentence does not conform to all three of these rules, it is a fragment.
A fragment is a group of words that is written as a sentence but does not conform to one or more of the rules listed above. In other words, a fragment is missing a subject or a noun or is not a complete thought. Most fragments written by college-level students are a result of an independent clause and a dependent clause that are not put together in the same sentence. (More on independent and dependent clauses)
If a writer is aware of the rules for sentence construction and makes sure they are always followed, fixing a fragment is fairly straightforward.
Here are some examples of fragments along with possible fixes:
In this example, the second sentence is actually a dependent clause (what about the fact that you aren’t doing well?) and needs to be connected to the independent clause.
Once again, the second sentence is a dependent clause (why did you decide to attend Aims?) and needs to be connected to the first sentence, which is an independent clause.
The second sentence is missing a subject; it can either be connected to the first independent clause or needs to restate the subject. Simply inserting the pronoun it to refer back to the weather will fix this.
This sentence is missing a complete verb, also known as the predicate (and because the predicate is missing, we aren’t sure what the subject is either).
Note: Fragments can often be found in other forms of writing, such as novels and personal interest pieces that appear in newspapers and magazines. In these cases, fragments are used for effect by the writer, and the writer is aware that she is using them. However, in an academic essay, fragments should always be avoided.